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中高考补习英语定语从句八大分类是重点

2019-04-12 来源:学思教育 作者:本站编辑

状语从句状语可分为八大类: 时间状语,地点状语,条件状语,原因状语,目的状语,结果状语,让步状语和比较状语,今天学思教育蔡老师会一

状语从句

状语可分为八大类: 时间状语,地点状语,条件状语,原因状语,目的状语,结果状语,让步状语和比较状语,今天学思教育蔡老师会一一给大家讲解!状语从句可是中考考的必考项,想要补习英语的同学们,一定要擦亮眼睛选对补习班,才能对自己有帮助!

学思教育暑期补习班招生

一、时间状语从句

when ,while, as, after ,before, as soon as, since ,till /until by the time 在时间状语从句中,要注意时态一致。一般情况下主句是将来时的时候,从句要用一般现在时
  释义 特点 从句的谓语v 动作
when 当……的时候 时间点/时间段 非延续性v/延续性v 动作可先后发生,也可同时发生
while 在……的期间 时间段 延续v 动作同时发生
as 一边……一边……
与……同时
    两个动作同时发生/淡化时间
before 在……之前 时间点   主句动作发生在从句动作之前,从句不用否定式
after 在……之后 时间点   主句动作发生在从句动作之后
since 自从   若时间从该动作发生时算起,用非延续性v 若时间从该动作或结束时算起,用延续性v
by the time 到……为止   延续性v  
until/till 直到   主句谓语延续性v,主句常用肯定形式 主句谓语非延续性v,主句常用否定形式
as soon as 一……就……     强调两个动作紧接着发生
 
1.when 当…的时候
Mozart started writing music when he was four years old.
(当)莫扎特4岁的时候,开始写音乐作品。
When/while we were dancing, a stranger came in.
当我们正在跳舞的时候,一个陌生人进来了。
2.while 当…时
He visited a lot of places while he was traveling.
他在旅途中参观了许多地方。
3. as 在…的同时;一边…一边…
He smiled as he stood up.
他一边站起来一边笑着。
I saw Peter as I was getting off the bus.
在我下公交车的时候,我看见了Peter。
4.after 在…之后
He left the classroom after he had finished his homework the other day.
前几天做完作业之后回的家。
5.before 在…之前
Mr. Brown had worked in a bank for a year before he came here.
布朗先生来这之前已经在一家银行里工作一年了。
6. as soon as 一…就…
I will write to you as soon as I get home.
我一到家就给你写信。
7. till /until
都可以作连词,连接时间状语,也可以作介词,与其它词构成介词短语,在句中作状语。
They walked till /until it was dark.
他们一直走到天黑。
 
8.since 以来 到现在
表示自过去的一个起点时间到目前(说话时间)为止的一段持续时间。主句一般用现在完成时,从句用一般过去时但在It is +时间+since从句的句型中,主句多用一般现在时。
Mr Green has taught in that school since he came to China three years ago.
自格林先生来中国以来,他就在这所学校教书。
Where have you been since I last saw you? 自上次我和你见面以后,你到哪里去了?
It is four years since my sister lived in Beijing. 我妹妹不在北京住有四年了。
9. by the time 为止 (所在句子的主句应用现在或过去完成时)
By the time he gets there , his father has already gone.
他到家的时候,他爸爸已经走了。
By the time I got to school, the class had already began.
我到校时,已经开始上课了。
 

二、时间状语引导词的区别:

A, when, whileas的区别
when引导的从句的谓语动词可以是延续性的动词,又可以是瞬时动词。并且when有时表示"就在那时"
When she came in, I was eating.她进来时,我在吃饭。(瞬时动词)
When I lived in the countryside, I used to carry some water for him.当的住在农村时,我常常为他担水。(延续性的动词)
We were about to leave when he came in.我们就要离开,就在那时他进来了。
While引导的从句的谓语动作必须是延续性的,并强调主句和从句的动作同时发生(或者相对应)并且while有时还可以表示对比。例如:
While my wife was reading the newspaper, I was watching TV. (was reading是延续性的动词,was reading和was watching同时发生)
I like playing football while you like playing basketball.我喜欢踢足球,而你喜欢打篮球。(对比)
As表示"一边一边"as引导的动作是延续性的动作,一般用于主句和从句动作同时发生;as也可以强调"一先一后。
We always sing as we walk.我们总是边走边唱。(as表示"一边…一边")
As we was going out, it began to snow.当我们出门时,开始下雪了。(as强调句中两个动作紧接着先后发生,而不强调开始下雪的特定时间)
有时这三个连词可以互换,有时不可以。
lt was raining hard when (as) I got there.
我到那里时,正在下大雨。 ( 动作同时发生,when可换为as, 但不能换为while,因为get是点动词.)
When I had read the article, he called me.
我看完这篇文章之后,他给我打了电话。( 从句动作发生在主句之前,注意时态表达,只能用when )
When I got to the cinema, the film had begun.
(当)我到了电影院时,电影已经开演了。(从句的动作发生在主句之后,只能用when,并要注意时态)
He was about to leave, when the telephone rang.
他正要离开,忽然电话响了。( 此时不能放在句首。主句动词一般表达 "正在""即将".
while, as不能代替
She thought I was talking about her daughter, while, in fact, I was talking about my daughter.
他以为我在谈她女儿,然而,实际上在谈论我女儿。(表转折,对比,when, as都不能代替它)
While the alien was buying a souvenir, the girl called the police.
外星人买纪念品时,那女孩给警察打了电话。(表示主句,从句的动作同时发生,while后引导的状语从句的动词必须是延续动词不能是点动词,因为它表示较长时间)
Mother was worried because little Alice was ill, especially as (when/ while) father was away.
妈妈担心,因为小爱丽丝病了,特别是他父亲不在家的时候。(此时as ,when, while可通用)
B. beforeafter引导的时间状语从句。
before当主句用将来时,从句总是用现在时;如果before引导的从句谓语用的是过去时,则主句动词多用过去完成时,这样以便体现动作发生的先后。
After表示主句动作发生在从句动作之后。从句是过去完成时,主句是一般过去时。
It will be four days before they come back. 他们要过四天才能回来。
Einstein almost knocked me down before he saw me.爱因斯坦几乎把我撞倒才看到我。
My father had left for Canada just before the letter arrived.我父亲恰好在信到之前去加拿大了。
After you think it over, please let me know what you decide.你仔细考虑过以后,告诉我你是怎样决定的。
After we had finished the work, we went home.完成工作之后,我们回家了。(从句用过去完成时,主句用一般过去时)
C. tilluntil引导的时间状语从句。
tilluntil一般情况下两者可以互换,但是在强调句型中多用until。
I didn't go to bed until(till) my father came back.直到我父亲回来我才上床睡觉。
It was not until the meeting was over that he began to teach me English.直到散会之后他才开始教我英语。

知识扩展

1. It is since从…以来多长时间了(因为since +从句或名词,表示一段时间)
It is five years since we met last time.从我们上次见面已经五年了。
2. It is +before…(…才)
It was a long time before I went to sleep again.
过了很长时间我才睡着。
It was an hour before(=until) the police arrived.
过了一个小时,警察才来。
3. 由as soon as, immediately, directly, instantly, the moment, the instant, the minute, 等引导的时间状语从句。这些连词都表示"一…就"。例如:
I will go there directly I have finished my breakfast. 吃完早饭,我立即到那里去。
The moment I heard the news, I hastened to the spot.我一听到消息,马上赶到了出事地点。
As soon as I reach Canada, I will ring you up. 我一到加拿大,就给你来电话。
4.【注意】hardly(scarcely, rarely)…when / before, no sooner…than相当于as soon as之意。主句用过去完成时,从句用一般过去时。当hardly, scarcely, rarelyno sooner位于句首时,主句应用倒装语序。例如:
He had no sooner arrived home than he was asked to start on another journey. 他刚到家,就被邀请开始另一旅程。
No sooner had the sun shown itself above the horizon than he got out of bed to commence work.太阳刚从地平线上升起,他就起床劳动去了。
Hardly had I sat down when he stepped in.我刚坐下,他就进来了。
He had hardly fallen asleep when he felt a soft touch on his shoulder.这个阿拉伯人刚要入睡就感到肩膀上被轻轻一触。
5.by the time引导的时间状语从句:注意时态的变化:在一般情况下,如果从句的谓语动词用一般过去时,主句的谓语动词用过去完成时;如果从句的谓语动词用一般现在时,主句的谓语动词用将来完成时。
By the time you came back, I had finished this book.到你回来时,我已经写完这本书了。
By the time you come here tomorrow, I will have finished this work. 你明天来这儿的时候,我将已经完成此工作了。
6. 由as long as和so long as引导的时间状语从句。这两个连词表示"有多久……就多久"。例如:
You can go where you like as long as you get back before dark. 你可以随意到哪里去,只要在天黑以前回来就行。
I will fight against these conditions as long as there is a breath in my body! 只要我一息尚存,我就要反对这种境况。
 

三、地点状语从句

1.地点状语从句 (adverbial clause of place),anywhere, where, wherever等引导
要点: 由连词where,anywhere和复合关系词wherever (=no matter where )引导.
句型:anywhere/ where/ wherever+地点从句,(there)+主句。
【注意】此句型通常译成"哪里……哪里就……";主句在从句后面时,there可用可不用;如果主句在从句的前面时,一般都不用there。
Where there is no rain, farming is difficult or impossible.在没有雨水的地方,耕作是困难的,或根本不可能的。
Where the Communist Party of China goes, there the people are liberated.哪里有了中国共产党,哪里人民得解放。
Wherever the sea is , you will find seamen.有海就有海员。
2. 知识扩展
1.Where there is a will , there is a way.
有志者事竟成。(谚语)
1. It will be mixed school where not all the children are disabled.
他将是一所混合式学校,那里的儿童并不都是残疾。(在限定性定语从句中对先行词起着限定作用。)
2.Wherever you go , I go too.
无论你到什么地方,我都去。(wherever=no matter where)无论何处,多用于句首。
3.Wherever there is smoke , there is fire.
无风不起浪。(谚语)
4. While she was wondering where to go , she met a policeman.

四、条件状语从句(虚拟)

要点: 表示状语从句由连词if, unless (=if not) 意思为除非引导。(让步)
1.If it doesn't rain tomorrow, we will go hiking.
如果明天不下雨, 我们就去远足.
2.You will get good grades if you study hard.
如果你努力学习,就会取得好成绩.
3.You will be late unless you leave immediately.
如果你不马上走,你将会迟到的.(=If you don't leave immediately, you will be late.)
条件状语从句时要注意: 从句要用一般现在时,主句是将来时的时候

五、原因状语从句

由连词because, since, as引导(语气:because>since>as), 也可由for, now that 等词引导
1.    I didn't go to school yesterday because I was ill.
我昨天没去上学,因为我生病了。
2. Since everybody is here, let's begin our meeting.
既然大家都来了, 让我们开始开会吧.
3. As you are in poor health, you should not stay up late.
既然你身体不好, 你就不该熬夜.
4.I asked her to stay to tea, for I had something to tell her.
我请她留下来喝茶,因为我有事要告诉她.
.难点--because , since , as , for,辨析
1) because语势最强,用来说明人所不知的原因,回答why提出的问题。当原因是显而易见的或已为人们所知,就用as since语气:because>since>as
I didn't go, because I was afraid.
Since / As the weather is so bad, we have to delay our journey.
2) because引导的从句如果放在句末,且前面有逗号,则可以用for来代替。但如果不是说明直接原因,而是多种情况加以推断,就只能用for
He is absent today, because / for he is ill.
He must be ill, for he is absent today.

六、目的、结果状语从句

要点: 目的状语从句由连词that, so that, so…that , in order that 引导。
结果状语从句由连词( so )that, so…that, such…that, so much/many…that引导。
1. so…that 如此…以至于
The scientist's report was so instructive that we were all very excited.
科学家的报告很有教育性,我们感到很兴奋。
He always studied so hard that he made great progress.
他总是那么努力,所以他取得了很大的进步。
2. so that 以至于, 以便于
I'll run slowly so that you can catch up with me. (目的)
我将慢慢跑以至于你能赶上我。
I opened the window so that fresh air might come in. (目的)
我把窗户打开以便于使新鲜空气可以进来。
3. such…that 如此。。。以至
It's such nice weather that all of us want to go to the park.
天气是如此的好,我们大家都想去公园玩。
4. in order that=so that:为了
We shall let you know the details soon in order that you can/may make your arrangements.
不久我们将会让你知道详情,以便你们能够做出安排。(目的)
5.比较:so和 such
规律由so与such的不同词性决定。such 是形容词,修饰名词或名词词组,so 是副词,只能修饰形容词或副词。 so 还可与表示数量的形容词many, few, much, little连用,形成固定搭配。
so foolish such a fool
so nice a flower such a nice flower
so many / few flowers such nice flowers
so much / little money. such rapid progress
so many people such a lot of people
( so many 已成固定搭配,a lot of 虽相当于 many,但 a lot of 为名词性的,只能用such a lot of搭配。)
so…that与such…that之间的转换既为 so与such之间的转换。
The boy is so young that he can't go to school.
He is such a young boy that he can't go to school
难点
so+形容词或副词
So+adj+a(an)+单数可数名词
so +many 或few+复数可数名词 +that
so+much或 little+不可数名词
so that ,such…that 都可以in order that两者皆可引导目的地状语从句和结果状语从句,
当他们引导目的状语从句时,从句的谓语里常常有can, could, may, might, will, would等词。
so +adj或adv.+ that, such +n.+ that 以上两种句型都表示结果,其中so为副词,后接形容词,副词原型,当可数名词前有many, few;不可数名词前有much, little修饰时,应采用句型:so many (few, much, little )+n. 。
such为形容词, 后只能接名词。这名词既可以地可数的,也可以是不可数的。如果这名词是可数的,则必须在名词前加不定冠词a(an). 常见的形式是:such a (beautiful)garden, such(nice)people.
1。I've had so many falls that I'm black and blue all over.
我跌了很多跤,浑身数摔得清一块紫一块.
2。there are so few notebooks that I can't give you any.
笔记本太少了,我一本也给不了你.
3。It is such nice weather that I'd like to take a walk.
天气是如此只好,以致于我想去散散步.
4。Mike is so honest a man that we all believe him.
麦克是如此诚实的一个人,以致于大家都相信他
(=Mike is such an honest man that we all believe him.)
5。The weather is so nice that I'd like to take a walk.
天气是如此之好,以致于我想去散散步.
 

七、让步状语从句

要点: 表示让步的状语从句由连词 though, although引导.
lthough, although当虽然讲, 都不能和but连用. Although,(though)…but的格式是不对的.但是他们都可以同yet (still) 连用. 所以thought (although)…yet(still)的格式是正确的.
Wrong: Although he is rich but he is not happy.
Right : Although he is rich, yet he is not happy.
虽然他很富有, 然而他并不快乐.
Right : Although we have grown up, our parents treat us as children.
Right : Although we have grown up, our parents still treat us as children.
尽管我们已经长大了,可是我们的父母仍把我们看作小孩.
 
although, though 辨析
although 不能单独放在句末,though 可以单独放在句末,放在句末表示强调时要用though;
1。He is looking fit, though.
但是,他看上去很健康. 考点
2。Even though I didn't under a word, I kept smiling.
尽管我一个字也不懂,我还是一直微笑着。
3。He is quite experienced, he is young, though.
尽管他很年轻,他很有经验。
2) as, though 引导的倒装句
as / though引导的让步从句必须表语或状语提前(形容词、副词、分词、实义动词提前)。
Child as /though he was, he knew what was the right thing to do.
= Though he was a small child, he knew what was the right thing to do.
【注意】
A. 句首名词不能带任何冠词
B. 句首是实义动词,其他助动词放在主语后。如果实义动词有宾语和状语,随实义动词一起放在主语之前。
Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily.
= Though he tries hard, he never seems…
虽然他尽了努力,但他的工作总做的不尽人意。
C. ever if, even though. 即使
We'll make a trip even though the weather is bad.
D. whether…or- 不管……都
Whether you believe it or not, it is true.
E. "no matter +疑问词" 或"疑问词+后缀ever"
No matter what happened, he would not mind.
Whatever happened, he would not mind.
替换: no matter what = whatever
no matter who = whoever
no matter when = whenever
no matter where = wherever
no matter which = whichever
no matter how = however
注意:no matter形式不能引导主语从句和宾语从句Tip:一直用疑问代词=ever的形式
(错)No matter what you say is of no use now.
(对)Whatever you say is of no use now.
你现在说什么也没用了。(Whatever you say是主语从句)
(错)Prisoners have to eat no matter what they're given,
(对)Prisoners have to eat whatever they're given. 囚犯们只能给什么吃什么。
 

八、比较状语从句

比较状语从句主要运用于形容词和副词的原级,比较级及最高级的句子之中。
原级
1. as…as 和。。。一样
Jack is as tall as Bob.
捷克和汤姆一样高。
2. not so(as)…as …和不一样
She is not so(as)outgoing as her sister.
她不如她姐姐外向。
比较级
more…than (更)
This book is more instructive than that one.
这本书比那本书由教育意义。
最高级
1.The most…in/of
This book is the most interesting of the three.
这本书是三本中最有趣的。
2. the + 形容词+est…of/in
This road is the busiest street in our city.
这条路是我们城市最繁忙的街道。
知识扩展
no more than只不过(嫌少的意思)
1。I have no more than two pens.
我只有两支笔。
2。It's no more than a mile to the shops.
去商店不过一英里。
not more than不如。。。;(前者不如后者)
1。Jack is not more diligent than John.
捷克不如约翰勤奋。
2。one of the + 名词(复数)….之一(用于最高级)
Han Mei is one of the best students in our school.
韩梅是我们学校最好的学生之一。

九、方式状语从句

1) 方式状语从句通常由as, (just) as…so…, as if, as though引导。
as, (just) as…so…引导的方式状语从句通常位于主句后,但在(just) as…so…结构中位于句首,这时as从句带有比喻的含义,意思是"正如…","就像",多用于正式文体,例如:
1。Always do to the others as you would be done by.
你希望人家怎样待你,你就要怎样待人。
2。As water is to fish, so air is to man.
我们离不开空气,犹如鱼儿离不开水。
3。Just as we sweep our rooms, so we should sweep backward ideas from our minds.
正如打扫房屋一样,我们也要扫除我们头脑中落后的东西。
2) as if, as though
两者的意义和用法相同,引出的状语从句谓语多用虚拟语气,表示与事实相反,有时也用陈述语气,表示所说情况是事实或实现的可能性较大。汉译常作"仿佛……似的","好像……似的",例如:
1。They completely ignore these facts as if (as though) they never existed.
他们完全忽略了这些事实,就仿佛它不存在似的。(与事实相反,谓语用虚拟语气。)
2。He looks as if (as though) he had been hit by lighting.
他那样子就像被雷击了似的。(与事实相反,谓语用虚拟语气。)
3。It looks as if the weather may pick up very soon.
看来天气很快就会好起来。(实现的可能性较大,谓语用陈述语气。)
[说明]as if / as though也可以引导一个分词短语、不定式短语或无动词短语,例如:
1。He stared at me as if seeing me for first time.
他目不转睛地看着我,就像第一次看见我似的。
2。He cleared his throat as if to say something.
他清了清嗓子,像要说什么似的。
3。The waves dashed on the rocks as if in anger.
波涛冲击着岩石,好像很愤怒。
 
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